Resource Management : SRM and CRM

Resource management is often misunderstood.  In my opinion, Jeppesen has broken down SRM better than anyone else I've seen.  Remember, SRM (single-pilot resource management) is using any and all assets available to the single pilot.  CRM (crew resource management) is taking the skills of SRM and exploiting them with the power of two (or more) minds.  SRM can be classified into six skills; ADM, RM, TM, SA, CFIT Awareness, AM.

CREW RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (CRM)
  1. All skill sets from SRM apply
  2. Proven CRM techniques and procedures
    • VVM
      • Verbalize, verify, monitor
    • TEM
      • Threat and Error Management
        • Threats are beyond our control
        • Errors are self-induced
      • Skills
        • Planning and decision making
        • Leadership effectiveness
        • Situational awareness
        • Communication
        • Monitor/Crosscheck
        • Workload management
        • Automation management 
    • Crew Debrief
      • What went well?  Why?
      • What could have gone better?  Why?
      • What will we do next time?

SINGLE PILOT RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (SRM, at FAA or Wiki)
  1. Aeronautical Decision Making (ADM)
    • Decision making process (2 or 3 models)
      • DECIDE model 
        • Detect the problem
        • Estimate the need to react 
        • Choose a course of action 
        • Identify solutions
        • Do the necessary actions 
        • Evaluate the effect of the actions 
      • 3Ps
        • Perceive / Process / Perform
      • ARA (anticipate, recognize, act) – a decision making cycle
    • Pilot-in-command responsibility (person ultimately responsible for operation and safety)
    • Hazardous attitudes 
    • Stress management
  2. Risk Management (RM); four models
    • PAVE (checklist)
      • Pilot
        • "I’M SAFE"
          • Illness
          • Medication
          • Stress
          • Alcohol (FAR states 8 hours; FAA recommends 24 hours)
          • Fatigue (and Food)
          • Emotion
        • Personal minimums
          • Aircraft: 3 hours in make/model w/in last 3 months
          • Currency:  BFR < 12 MO, 3 landings w/in 90 days, 1 in 30 days
          • WX: VFR, 2000-5, 1000-3, 500-2 (likely to change with currency)
          • Fuel: 60-minute reserve?  Legal reserve?
          • Personal Mins Contracts: VFR or IFR
        • Aircraft
        • Environment
        • External pressures
    • AF PAVE (alternate acronym): ATC, Fuel, Pilot, Aircraft, Environment, Eternal Pressures
    • 5Ps
      • Plan
      • Plane
      • Pilot (same as above)
      • Passengers
      • Programming
    • AMATI (what to do with risks)
      • Avoid / Mitigate  / Accept / Transfer / Ignore (never chose)
  3. Task management (TM) 
    • Planning and prioritization
    • Timing of completion of tasks
    • Resource use
      • Internal
        • Checklists, Flow patterns
      • External
  4. Situational Awareness
      • Regular evaluation of the 5Ps
      • Use of standard operating procedures (SOPs)
      • Workload management
        • Managing distractions
        • Avoiding fixation
      • Communications
        • Sterile cockpit
        • Crew coordination
        • Radio procedures
    1. Automation Management
      • Skillful operation of autopilot and FMS under normal conditions
      • Recognition of operating modes and mode changes
      • Anticipation of next operating mode
      • Recognition and correction of unanticipated mode changes
      • Automation Levels. Reduction of automation use, including “hand-flying.”
        • After an unexpected mode change
        • After a change in flight plan or clearance
      • Maintaining “hand-flying” skills
    2. CFIT (controlled flight into terrain) Awareness
      • Flight planning using current charts
      • Analysis of terrain and obstacle hazards along intended route
      • Understanding and interpreting terrain displays
      • Planning of departures to avoid terrain
      • Adjusting route to avoid terrain
      • Consideration of terrain during diversions
      • Aircraft performance limitations and CFIT risk
      • Most likely to happen...
        • in extreme weather conditions
        • with inattention to detail
        • when descending below published minimums on an approach
        • with a change in terrain height & aircraft does not climb to appropriate safe altitude
        • when you are distracted (system failure, trying to determine cause of any abnormality)
    - FIG -

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