Checkrides

In General
  • 1st and foremost:  if you’re referencing study material that isn’t in the FAR, AIM, or from an FAA source, you must always cross-check it for accuracy.
  • Advanced ratings
    • If you’re a certificate-carrying pilot, you’re as accountable for information you learned in your previous lessons as you are for advanced ratings.  Such as cloud clearances, currencies, traffic pattern calls (like when circling), weight and balance, light signals from the tower, etc., etc.
  • Arrive with PERSONAL MINS!
  • Automation
    • Don't delegate PIC responsibilities to a computer - ever!
    • Expect to have a good working knowledge of any automation in the aircraft you plan to use.  If it has a 430Wlyou should be able to do more with it than changing a radio or nav frequency.  Don't worry, this can be to your advantage if the examiner isn't that familiar with the equipment.
  • Checkride Bombs to Avoid (Shawn Hardin)
  • Compass, magnetic (go here)
  • Currency vs proficiency?  Current meets FAA requirement, proficient keeps you alive, or simpler current is legal, proficient is safe. 
  • Knowledge.  You are responsible for all knowledge topics which is on every page of every portion of flight and I would add any ‘knowledge’ of prior ratings.
  • Oral
    • Opening questions will likely follow ACS flow...Pilot qualifications, Medicals, Privileges, Currency, Airworthiness Requirements, Weather, Cross Country, etc.
  • Landings
    • Adverse yaw (turning without the rudder on final leads to a rocking, unstable approach)
    • Airspeed control on final
    • Don't hesitate to go around on a crappy approach (but DO NOT make it overly conservative - you have to land eventually)
  • Navigation
    • Can you dead reckon?
  • Videos
Any rating
  • Fuel:
    • Minimum requirements
    • How do you calculate required fuel for a cross country?
    • When do you declare a 'critical fuel' situation?
  • Inspections:
    • How often does the ELT need to be checked?
    • How often does the pitot-static system need to be checked?
    • How often does the transponder need to be checked?
    • How often do the VORs need to be checked?
  • NOTAMs
    • What are they?
    • What are NOTAMs types?  (there are seven)
  • Part 68 BasicMed Privileges and Limitations
  • Privileges and limitations (based on rating)
  • VOR
    • How do you know where a VOR checkpoint is on the airport? What does it look like and how is it marked?  Where is a VOT located on the airport?
    • How long is a VOR check valid? (30 days)
    • What are the different ways to check a VOR?
      • VOT, designated airborne or ground check, radio to radio, and maintenance shop
    • What is a VOT? And how is a VOR checkpoint and a VOT different?
    • What is the maximum deviation for each type of check?
    • What must be recorded when accomplishing a check?
      • Name, date, place and bearing error
    • Where can you find VOR checkpoints and VOTs?
  • Weather
    • AIRMET (WA), SIGMET (WS) and Convective SIGMET (WST):  what are they?
      • AIRMET Sierra, Tango and Zulu:  what are they?
        • My memory aide: Socked-in (IFR), Turbulence and Zero (icing)
    • Area Forecast:  at what frequency are Area Forecasts issued?
    • Clouds, four basic groups?
    • Difference between an isobar and an isotherm?
    • Fog types
    • Questions (five) you need to know for your checkride (boldmethod)
    • Thunderstorms:
      • Actions if caught in a thunderstorm
      • Associated hazards
      • Can you fly into a thunderstorm?
      • Three stages
      • Three conditions necessary for a thunderstorm to develop
    • Terminal Area Forecast:  What are they?  What is a TAF duration?  How often are they updated?
    • Weather typically associated with pressures and fronts?
    • What would you expect if temperature and dew point are within three degrees?  (Fog)
  • What your DPE wants you to know (from Flying Magazine *)
    • Sloppy record keeping makes for a poor start.
    • The Airman Certification Standards should be the applicant’s bible.
    • Is the airplane airworthy for the test?
    • When a copy won’t work.
    • Transform Book Knowledge Into Lifelong Habits
    • Are Students Taught Adequate Risk Assessment?
    • Teach for the test or the real world?
    • Instrument considerations.
    • After the Check Ride.
    • * I made my own copy because Flying's website is miserable.  Before you cry 'foul' go there and see for yourself.  Absolutely riddled with ads.
--------------------------------------------------------
Private
  • 6 most-common Private Pilot checkride failures (more detail here)
    • Navigation
    • Stalls
    • Landings
    • Emergency landings
    • Airspace
    • Weather
  • Debrief / Profile
  • Mock Check Ride (oral) w/ Todd Shellnut, 2019
  • Mock Check Ride (oral) w/ Todd Shellnut, 2018
  • Mock Check Ride (oral) w/ Allan Englehardt (old but relevant nuggets)
  • Oral check guide (iflycoast.com)
  • What your DPE wants you to know (from Flying Magazine *) **
    • Sloppy record keeping makes for a poor start.
    • The Airman Certification Standards should be the applicant’s bible.
    • Is the airplane airworthy for the test?
    • When a copy won’t work.
    • Transform Book Knowledge Into Lifelong Habits
    • Are Students Taught Adequate Risk Assessment?
    • Teach for the test or the real world?
    • Instrument considerations.
    • After the Check Ride.
    • * I made a clean copy because Flying's website is miserable.  Before you cry 'foul' go there and see for yourself.  Absolutely riddled with ads.
    • ** I placed this under Private Pilot because it should be no surprise for any follow-on checkride.
--------------------------------------------------------
Instrument
  • Equipment required for IFR flight (additional to VFR equipment):  "GRAB CARD"
    • Generator or alternator
    • Radio (2-way communication system)
    • Attitude indicator
    • Bank (or "Ball", slip/skid indicator)
    • Clock (installed in AC, not your own)
    • Altimeter adjustable for barometric pressure
    • Rate-of-turn indicator, gyroscopic
    • Directional gyroscopic indicator
    • NOTE: navigation equipment appropriate to facilities expected to use
    • NOTE: absence of the vertical speed indicator
  • Alternates.
    • Does alternate need to a published approach? Why or why not?  Based on forecast.
    • What are the approach requirements for an alternate?\
    • What are the forecast requirements for alternate airport (if required)?  At ETA must be:
      • 600' ceiling w/ 2 SM visibility for airports with precision approach
      • 800' ceiling w/ 2 SM visibility for airports with non-precision approach
    • When do you need an alternate?
      • When WX at destination airport +/- 1 hour of ETA is forecast to be less than 2000’ ceiling and visibility is forecast to be less than 3 miles (123 rule)
      • What constitutes a ceiling?
        • The lowest broken, overcast, or obscuration (not classified as thin or partial) cloud layer
    • Where do you find the non-standard alternate minimums?  (front of procedures book)
  • Altitudes:
    • MAA – maximum authorized altitude
    • MCA – min crossing altitude, clear obstacles w/ “normal” climb 
      • 150 FPNM (0-5K’ MSL); 120 FPNM (5K-10K’ MSL); 100 FPNM (10K’ MSL or above)
    • MEA – min enroute alt.  Lowest alt b/w nav fixes that ensures reception and meets MOCA.  Can be marked as “MEA gap”.
    • MOCA – min obstacle clearance alt. 1K or 2K over obstacles and reception w/in 22 nm of NAVAID
    • MORA – min off route alt.  10 nm from route 1K or 2K clearance
    • MRA - lowest alt where an aircraft can be assured of receiving NAVAIDs
    • MSA – min sector alt.  1K clearance w/in 25 nm
    • MVA – min vector alt.  Lowest alt which a radar controller may issue aircraft altitude clearances during vectoring/direct routing
    • If MEA and MOCA exists for segment, you can use MEA but not below MOCA
    • Minimum altitudes you may use for IFR Operations?
      • Except when necessary for takeoff and landing, the minimum altitudes are:
      • 2K’ above nearest obstacle w/in 4 NM of the course to be flown in mountainous areas
      • 1K’ above nearest obstacle w/in 4 NM of the course to be flown in non-mountainous areas
    • What is MEA and MOCA and the difference?
  • Certification requirements, recency of experience, and record keeping 
  • Charts:
    • You will review a chart - use the legend and be familiar with common symbols
    • Low Altitude Chart, what is the quickest way to tell if an airport has an instrument approach?
    • Victor routes...what does an X flag mean? 
    • What do the large and small numbers within a specific latitude/longitude grid on the Enroute Low Altitude Chart represent and how do they differ from the VFR Sectional Chart?
    • What are the numbers in the square box just below an airway line?
  • Clearances:
    • If “cleared as filed”, does this guarantee route and altitude?  NO – only the route
  • Climbs, 
    • Minimum rate of climb required for normal departure (if no ODP published)
      • 200 feet per nautical mile
    • Minimum rate of climb required for enroute climb (for obstruction clearance)
      • 150 feet per nautical mile at sea level through 5,000 feet MSL
      • 120 feet per nautical mile from 5,000 feet through 10,000 feet MSL
      • 100 feet per natural mile above 10,000 feet MSL
  • Compass, magnetic (go here)
  • Currency
    • How can you maintain instrument currency?
      • By completing 6 approaches, navigation, tracking, and at least 1 hold in previous 6 months
    • What if you don’t fly for a year?
      • After any 6-month period where you do not maintain currency, you have 6 months grace to allow you to get the 6 approaches, navigation tracking, and the required hold with a safety pilot.
      • After the grace period you may regain instrument privileges with an IPC with an FAA inspector, a designated instrument examiner, or with a CFII.
  • Debrief / Profiles:
  • Experience:  what is the required recent pilot experience?
    • 6 approaches within the past 6 months w/ holding & intercepting & tracking courses. (61.57c)
  • Filing:  how long before the flight should you file your IFR flight plan?
  • Fuel requirements, IFR
    • Fuel to fly from originating airport to destination, and then at normal cruise for 45 mins.
    • If alternate is required, then fuel to fly from the originating airport to filed destination, then to alternate, then at normal cruise for 45 mins.
  • Fundamental skills of instrument flight?  (CIA)
    • Crosscheck, interpretation, aircraft control
  • Holding:
    • Speeds
      • Up to 6000’ MSL (200 KIAS)
      • 6001’-14,000’ MSL (230 KIAS)
      • Above 14,000’ MSL (265 KIAS)
    • What direction is standard for holding?
    • What is the required report?  Aircraft ID, time, and altitude
    • What must change 3 minutes prior?  Speed (if needed)
    • When do you start your time outbound?  When on outbound heading
  • Icing locations?  Structural (aircraft) and induction (engine)
    • When is induction icing in the carburetor venturi likely to occur?  When the OAT is between -7 degrees C and 21 degrees C
  • Icing types?
    • Clear ice is often clear and smooth. Supercooled water droplets, or freezing rain, strike a surface but do not freeze instantly.  Often "horns" or protrusions are formed & project into the airflow.
    • Rime ice is rough and opaque, formed by supercooled drops rapidly freezing on impact. Forming mostly along an airfoil's stagnation point, it generally conforms to the shape of the airfoil.
    • Mixed ice is a combination of clear and rime ice.
    • Frost ice is the result of water freezing on unprotected surfaces while the aircraft is stationary. 
    • SLD ice refers to ice formed in Supercooled Large Droplet (SLD) conditions. It is similar to clear ice, but because droplet size is large, it extends to unprotected parts of the aircraft and forms larger ice shapes, faster than normal icing conditions.
  • IFR Quick-Review sheets (one of the best summaries of rules by Pilots Cafe)
  • Inspections required for IFR?
  • Instrument Airplane Study Guide (by Geoff Hatcher)
  • Instrument Approaches:
    • You will review a chart - use the legend and be familiar with common symbols
    • Difference between LPV and LNAV/RNAV? (see approaches)
      • Difference between precision and non-precision approach?
        • Vertical guidance (could be said MDA vs DA/H, but be careful as APVs can also have DA/Hs)
      • How do you brief an instrument approach?
      • On a non-precision DME approach, how long should you be level prior to reaching the MAP? (1 mile from MAP)
      • On a non-precision timed approach, how long should you be level prior to reaching the MAP?  (1 minute prior to reaching the MAP)
      • Segments (see instrument approaches)
      • Standard rate turn?  3°/second.  What is a half-standard rate turn?  1.5°/second
      • What does NA mean?
      • When do you start your descent to MDA and start your timer?
    • Lost communications:
      • What is transponder code and what do you do to try to fix comm problem?
      • If in VFR conditions, you should land as soon as practical
      • If in IMC then your ROUTE should be as "AVE-F"
        • Assigned, vectored, expected, filed
      • If in IMC, ALTITUDE should be the highest of "MEA"
        • Minimum (see altitudes above), expected, assigned
      • Other actions:
        • Hand-held radio?
        • Listening to VORs and NDBs that have voice capability
    • Mandatory reports an IFR pilot needs to make?  "MARVELOUS VFR C500"
      • Missed approach
      • Airspeed ±10 knots or 5% change of filed TAS
      • Reaching a holding fix (time and altitude)
      • VFR on top altitude changes
      • ETA change of ±3 minutes (nonradar)
      • Leaving a holding fix
      • Outer marker inbound (nonradar)
      • Unforecast weather
      • Safety of flight
      • Vacating an altitude or flight level
      • Final approach fix inbound (nonradar)
      • Radio or navigation failure
      • Compulsory reporting points (nonradar)
      • 500 FPM climb or descent rate not obtainable
    • Oral questions (typical)
    • Preflight checks for an IFR flight versus a VFR flight:
      • Attitude indicator:  ensure stable < 5 mins and indicating correctly. While taxiing on level or somewhat level ground, the AI should not show more than a 5-degree bank.
      • Gyrocompass:  should remain at zero.
      • Magnetic compass:  ensure it is floating freely and indicating known headings
      • Pitot heat:  check
      • Turn coordinator:  turn on master switch prior to engine start and listen for unusual noises.  Ensure flag (if applicable) disappears with electrical power.  While taxiing, the airplane should bank in the direction of any turn and the coordination ball should roll away from the turn due to centrifugal force.
      • VOR:  verify checked within the past thirty days.
    • Procedure turns
      • Primary purpose?  Reversal of course.
      • When NOT to execute procedure turn?  "SHARP TT"
        • Straight in approach
        • Holding in lieu of a procedure turn
        • Arc
        • Radar vectored to final app course
        • "NoPT" depicted on chart
        • Timed approach
        • Teardrop course reversal
    • Scenarios:
      • You fly to your destination, it’s very busy and the airport is socked in. Your alternate is 150 miles away.  What would you do if the controller said “Cardinal 177SM, proceed to XX intersection, hold as published, expect further clearance at 1515” and the current time is 1445?
    • Side-step maneuver:
      • You fly an approach for a particular runway, but once you have the runway of intended landing in sight, you switch to the runway approved for landing.
      • Normally with parallel runways with a published approach to only one of them.
    • Speed categories:  what are they based on when flying a non-precision approach? 
    • Weather:
      • Where will you obtain your weather forecast for a flight under instrument flight rules?
    • What actions would you take if the alternator failure light illuminated while in IMC?
      • Try resetting the equipment
      • Turn off all unnecessary electrical equipment
      • Report the condition to the controller
      • Get the Airplane ON THE GROUND
    • What airspeed indication would you expect if pitot ram air inlet and the pitot tube drain were blocked?
      • The airspeed indicator would act as an altimeter in this case. If you climbed, the indicated airspeed would increase. The indicated airspeed would decrease if you descended.
    • What airspeed indication would you expect if pitot tube is blocked while the pitot drain remained open?
      • The airspeed would read zero.
    • What if you had an engine failure in IMC?
      • One technique is a spiraling descent at a low bank angle and at best glide.
    • What instruments would be affected if the static port became blocked?
      • Altimeter would stay at altitude indicated when blockage occurred and VSI would remain at 0.
      • Airspeed indicator could be affected depending upon status of pitot tube and pitot drain.
      • If the pitot is open but static is blocked - the airspeed would read lower than actual if the aircraft was at a higher altitude than where the static port became blocked, and would indicate a higher than actual indicated airspeed at altitudes below where the static port became blocked.
      • "PUDSOD"
        • Pitot blocked – Under-reads in Descent (over-reads in a climb)
        • Static blocked – Over-reads in Descent (under-reads in a climb)
    • What must be done on an approach if full needle deflection occurs on the LOC guidance?
      • A missed approach procedure must be initiated.
    • What must be taken on an approach if full needle deflection occurs on the vertical guidance?
      • A missed approach procedure must be initiated.
    • What would you do if you experienced a total electrical failure in IMC?
      • Have a plan B. You should always have an out
      • If the area ahead of you is a pure VFR condition (zero clouds and unlimited visibility) then you may consider dead reckoning
      • If the area along your route of flight is low ceilings and poor visibility, use plan B
      • Experienced a total electrical failure in a low ceiling/visibility condition with the same condition forecast all along route, go elsewhere
      • Known areas of VMC?  Dead reckon in that direction
      • Use a hand-held GPS if available
    • What would you do if you noticed that an electrical circuit breaker had tripped during your flight?
      • Ask yourself if you really need that piece of equipment.
      • If you do not absolutely positively need that piece of equipment, why tempt fate by resetting the breaker. It tripped for a reason. The next failure could result in a fire.
    • When may turns be initiated on a missed approach unless special instruction from ATC is issued?
      • Only after reaching the missed approach point.
    • You’re on an IFR flight but in VFR conditions. You see an aircraft that may present a hazard. ATC has not informed you of this aircraft. What action should you take?
      • It is every pilot’s responsibility to “see and avoid.”  Notify ATC and make appropriate maneuvers.
    --------------------------------------------------------
    CFI
    --------------------------------------------------------
    Commercial
    - FIG -

    No comments:

    Post a Comment

    Newest Additions

    20200807:  Pilot tip of the week -  Emergency off-field landing choices  (see  all tips ) 20200801:  Commit to Pattern Precision (FAA) 202...